Medical Terminology Glossary: [R]
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Radial pulse Arterial pulsation on the front of the thumb side of the wrist.
Radical Nephrectomy Removal of the kidney and sufficient surrounding tissues to minimise the risk of local recurrence of malignancy.
Radical (Surgery) Removal of the primary site of disease and all the regional lymphnodes.(Radio)Contrast (Medium) A substance, opaque to xrays or other electromagnetic waves, introduced into the body for the purpose of delineating internal anatomy for diagnostic purposes.
Radiologists A doctor specialising in the interpretation[rettation of X-rays and other scanning techniques for the diagnosis of disorders.
Radiotherapy (= Radiation Therapy) The use of electromagnetic or particulate radiation in the treatment of (particularly malignant) disease.
Radius The long bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
Reactive, of Bodily Response Occuring as a result of another physiological or pathological change.
Rebound (Tenderness) Pain occuring when the examiner suddenly releases pressure of the examining hand, allowing locally inflamed tissues to return suddenly to their normal position.
Recanalisation Spontaneous re-establishment of the continuity of the channel of the vas deferens after it has been surgically interrupted.
Rectovaginal Pertaining to both rectum and vagina.
Rectum The reservoir for feces located between the last (sigmoid) part of the large bowel and the anus.
Rectus Sheath The fascia surrounding the straight rectus abdominus muscles connecting the pubic bones to the breastbone and lower ribcage.
Red Blood Cells (RBC) Blood constituents which carry oxygen in hemoglobin, a pigment which gives blood its red colour.
Redivac A device for continuously draining fluid via a tube (catheter) from body cavities.
Reduction, Internal Operative correction of dislocation, subluxation or fracture.
Reflex, Deep Tendon Contraction of a muscle in response to tapping the tendon or guider with a reflex hammer; it requires intact sensory nerve supply to transmit the stretching of receptors in the muscle, and intact motor nerve supply for the muscle to contract.
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (= Complex Regional Pain Syndrome) Diffuse, persistent pain of an extremity associated with pathological changes in the nerve supply to its blood-vessels, in the nutrition to the skin, and in the mobility of the joints.
Reflux Esophagitis Irritation of the lining of the lower gullet (esophagus), caused by the return of (acidic) stomach contents.
Regional (Lymph Nodes) Adjacent, immediately filtering cells (notably bacteria, viruses and cancer cells) from the lymph returning from a site of disease.
Regurgitation Backflow of blood across a heart-valve.
Reimplantation, Ureteric Surgical reconstruction of the junction between ureter and kidney, after removal of damaged or diseased ureter.
Renal Cell Carcinoma A cancer arising from the inner lining of the kidney.
Renal Scan Diagnostic imaging of the distribution of a previously injected radioactive biological which is concentrated by kidney tissue.
Renal Insufficiency See renal failure.
Renal Failure Inability of the kidneys to maintain physiological blood levels of bodily waste products.
Renal Relating to the kidney.Resection Surgical removal by cutting.
Respiratory Insufficiency Pathological inability to maintain blood oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions within the normal range.
Respiratory Failure Inability to maintain normal tensions of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Respiratory Arrest Acute inability to breathe, because of damage to the respiratory centres in the brain(stem).
Respiratory Rate The per minute number of completed cycles of breathing.
Respiratory Distress Pathological increase in the effort and frequency of breathing movements.
Retained Products of Conception (RPC) Persistence of fragments of the placenta or membranes in the uterine cavity after delivery of the major portion of the placenta following childbirth.
Retention Failure of drainage of a hollow organ.
Retina Layer of light-detecting cells (rods and cones) at the back of the eye.
Retinopathy Diffuse disease of the retina.
Retractor A surgical instrument for holding back tissue which would otherwise obscure the surgeon's view.
Retrognathia Backwards displacement of the lower jaw.
Retrograde Pyelography Radiographic imaging of the ureters and collecting system of the kidneys by introducing a dye opaque to xrays by way of a urinary catheter.
Retroperitoneal Space The potential space just behind the visceral peritoneum.
Retropharyngeal Behind the pharynx.
Revascularisation Surgical replacement or repair of arteries to an organ or tissue.
Reverse Trendelenburg Position Lying supine with head higher than the pelvis.Rhesus Iso-immunisation The pathological development, usually during pregnancy, of antibodies to rhesus antigen, a blood-group protein normally absent in about 15% of the population; the antibodies will destroy the red blood cells of a subsequent rhesus-positive fetus.
Rheumatic Fever Disease involving inflammation of joints and damage to heart valves that follows streptococcal infection and is believed to be autoimmune, ie. antibodies to streptococcal components cross react with host tissue antigens.
Rheumatoid Factor (RA) A blood component pathologically increased in concentration in various connective tissue disorders, notably rheumatoid arthritis.
Rhinectomy, Total Surgical removal of the whole nose.
RhoGam Synthetically produced antibody against rhesus antigen, given therapeutically to neutralise the potentially sensitising effects of rhesus positive fetal Red Blood Cells which have leaked into the mother's circulation during pregnancy.
Rhonchi Wheezes audible with the stethoscope, indicating narrowing of small airways in the lungs.
Right to Left Shunt Passage of blood from the right atrium or ventricle to the corresponding left cavity, resulting in diminished oxygenation of the blood being pumped to the body.
Rigidity "Involuntary contraction of the abdominal musculature [muscles]".
Ringer's Lactate An intravenous fluid, similar to blood in salt concentrations but with added alkali to buffer acids in the blood.
Roux-en-Y Y-shaped surgically fashioned connection between the jejunum and another hollow organ, particularly bile-duct or stomach.
Rovsing's Sign Application of pressure to the left iliac fossa elicits pain in the right iliac fossa, distinguishing acute appendicitis from other causes of right lower quadrant pain.Rupture of Membranes Spontaneous, accidental or intentional breaching of the sac of amniotic fluid or liquor, allow its partial escape.
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