Medical Terminology Glossary: [B]
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Bacteriuria (or Bacteruria) The presence of significant numbers of bacterial germs in a specimen of urine examined by culture or microscopic examination (visible bacteriuria); if there are no accompanying symptoms or signs of urinary tract infection, and no pyuria, there may be more harm than benefit in treating nonpregnant women with antibiotics.
Band Cell A variety of neutrophil which appears in the blood in states of acute bacterial infection.
Banding (of Hemorrhoids) Surgical obliteration by constriction of the abnormal veins.
Bariatric Pertaining to the branch of medicine concerned with the management of obesity and its complications.
Barium Swallow Form of contrast study using an oily suspension of barium, for the purpose of delineating the inner surfaces of the gullet.
Barium Enema Series of radiographs of the rectum and large bowel taken after the introduction of the xray-opaque dye barium through the anus.
Barrier Precaution Procedure designed to obstruct the transmission of cross-infection.
Bartter's Syndrome Inherited disorder of potassium conservation by the kidneys.
Basal Ganglia A group of structures at the base of the cerebral hemispheres, concerned with involuntary control of movement, among other functions.
Basic Cardiac Life Support = cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or combined artifical ventilation and cardiac massage.
Basilar Artery Artery at the base of the skull formed by the paired vertebral arteries, 2 of the 4 arteries supplying oxygen-rich blood to the brain.
Benign, of Tumour Not having the capacity for invasion and destruction of surrounding tissues, or of metastasis.
Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin A hormone produced by the placenta and released into the mother's blood, and consequently a sensitive indicator of early pregnancy.
Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (-HCG) A hormone produced by the placenta, and therefore a semiquantitative marker of the degree of advancement of early pregnancy.
Beta-Blockers Medications which counteract the (beta-adrenergic) effects of adrenaline and the sympathetic nervous system.
Betadine An iodine-containing proprietary antiseptic.
Betnesol A synthetic steroid medication.
Bicarbonate, Sodium An alkaline molecule, generated in the body from carbon dioxide, and functioning as a reservoir to adjust for increases in acidity from metabolic activity.
Bicornuate Uterus Subseptate uterus with external indicator of the division.
Bifrontal Craniotomy A surgical approach in which the frontal sinuses are entered from the back wall, which is removed in the process, leaving the sinuses cranialised, that is, in continuity with the cranial cavity containing the brain.
Bifurcation Division of a channel into two, in this case the origin of the middle cerebral artery from the Circle of Willis.
Biliary, of Vomiting or Drainage Yellow or green colouration, due to the presence of bile produced by the liver.Biliary Tract Left, right and common hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts.
Bilirubin A breakdown product of red blood cells which abnormally accumulates in the body tissues, producing the yellow discolouration of jaundice.
Biloma An abnormal collection of bile.
Binding The chemical attachment of an inorganic to an organic substance in the tissues, causing an alteration in the biological activity of the inorganic substance.
Biopsy Removal of a portion of tissue for pathological examination.
BiParietal Diameter The diameter of the fetal or newborn skull at the parietal eminences, the widest diameter during vertex delivery.
Birth or Neonatal Impaired or absent interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the newborn, on the basis of compromised ventilation.
Blocking, Neuromuscular Interruption of transmission of nerve impulses to skeletal muscle.
Blood Urea Nitrogen A measure of waste-products in the blood which reflects both degree of dehydration and kidney function.
Blood Pressure The maximum (Systolic) and minimum (Diastolic) pressure measurements of the pulsations within an artery.
Blood Gases The content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and associated biochemical components in a sample of blood, usually arterial.Blood Urea Nitrogen A waste-product in the blood and urine, measurement of which provides a measure of kidney function or dehydration.
Blood Cultures Samples of blood tested for the presence of micro-organisms, typically bacteria which might be causing septicemia.
Bolus Large amount at once.
Bone Scan, Isotope Photographic imagery of the distribution in the bones of a previously injected radioactive biological which is concentrated by pathological activity.
Bone Flap A window created by the temporary surgical displacement of a section of bone, which remains attached along one edge to provide a blood-supply during the procedure.
Bougie A cylindrical surgical instrument which may be used for dilating or calibrating a tubular organ or orifice, or introducing a medication.
Bowel Sounds Gurgling sounds heard by the stethoscope on the abdominal wall and generated by gas/liquid mixture moved by active bowel muscle.
Bowel or Intestinal Obstruction Blockage of the bowel, that may be due to mechanical causes or paralytic ileus.
Brachial Plexus Junction of nerve roots and peripheral nerves in the armpit.
Brachydactyly Short fingers.
Bradycardia Abnormally slow heart rate.
Brain-stem The part of the brain located just above the spinal cord, concerned with control of breathing, blood-pressure, heart-rate and other vital functions.
Broad-spectrum, of Antibiotics Effective against a wide range of bacteria.
Bronchial Washings Tissue collected by irrigating the lining of the two major airways.
Bronchial Lavage Washing of the lining of the 2 major airways for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes.
Bronchial Brushings Tissue collected by frictionning a surgical sampler against the lining of the two major airways.
Bronchial Secretions Fluid produced by the lining of the major major airways.
Bronchial Asthma Intermittent, reversible, widespread narrowing of the airways of the lungs.
Bronchiolitis Inflammation, usually due to infection by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus, of the smallest airways of an infant, when severe leading to failure of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange and potentially fatal.
Bronchitis Inflammation of the major airways of the lungs.
Bronchodilator Substance that reversibly enlarges the small air passages.
Bronchopneumonia Inflammation of the smallest bronchial tubes, accompanied by irregular areas of obliteration of adjacent airspaces by infection.
Bronchoscopy, Fiberoptic Visualisation of the main tubes of the lungs, by means of a flexible lighted instrument introduced through the vocal cords and windpipe.
Bronchoscopy Visualisation of the main tubes of the lungs, by means of a lighted instrument introduced through the vocal cords and windpipe.
Bulging, Central Of an intervertebral disc, a distortion of the annulus fibrosus, indicating early degeneration short of failure to contain the nucleus pulposus.Bundle of HIS [pron. hiss](Atrioventricular) The part of the specialised electrical pathway of the heart, transmitting electrical impulses from the atriventricular node into the ventricles.
Bursa, Subacromial Bursa between the acromion, the bony prominence of the shoulder-blade or scapula at the point of the shoulder, and the capsule of the shoulder joint.
Bursa Closed sac containing cushioning and lubricating fluid produced by its synovial lining.Bursitis Inflammation of a bursa.
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