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Medical Terminology Glossary: [G]
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Gamma Glutamyl Transferase A liver enzyme characteristically increased in the blood in alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation of the liver).
Ganglion A cyst containing fluid and attached to a tendon sheath.
Gangrene Irreversible tissue damage from pathological interruption of the arterial blood-supply arising from extensive obstruction to the draining veins.
Gangrene Irreversible tissue damage from pathological interruption of the blood-supply.
Gastric Outlet The antrum and pylorus.
Gastric Ulcer(ation) Localised loss of the lining of the stomach.
Gastric Pertaining to the stomach.
Gastritis Irritation of the lining of the stomach.
Gastro Esophageal Reflux (GER) Passage of (acidic) stomach contents into the lower gullet (esophagus), causing pain, and damage to its lining.
Gastroenteritis Microbial infection of the stomach and bowel, resulting in nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
Gastroesophageal Junction Join between gullet and stomach.
Gastrogastrostomy Surgically created communication between 2 parts of the stomach.
Gastrografin Swallow Form of contrast study using a watery suspension of a radio-opaque substance for the purpose of delineating the inner surfaces of the gullet.
Gastrojejunostomy Surgically produced channel between the stomach and the second part of the small bowel.
Gastroplasty Surgical repair or modification of the stomach.
Gastroscopy Visualisation of the internal lining of the stomach via a lighted instrument introduced through the mouth and esophagus or gullet.
Gastrostomy Surgically created opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall.
Gastrotomy Surgical penetration of the stomach wall.
Gating, Cardiac Using an electronic signal from the electrical cycle of the heart to trigger an event, such as in imaging separate phases of cardiac contraction.
Genitofemoral Nerve See anatomical diagram.
Gestation The number of completed weeks of pregnancy, as measured from the Last Normal Menstrual Period (LNMP); 37 weeks is the dividing line between premature or preterm and normal, 42 weeks between normal and postmature.
Gestational Diabetes Pathological impairment of sugar metabolism caused by a relative lack of insulin limited to the duration of pregnancy and the immediate puerperium.
Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) A test for diabetes mellitus in which the urinary and/or blood glucose is measured at regular intervals after drinking a sugar solution, and the results compared with the normal ranges.
Gout A disease in which bodily accumulation of the waste product uric acid results in its deposition in cartilage (gristle) of joints and other soft tissue, resulting in arthritis.
Graft, Venous Patch Replacement of a section of injured or diseased artery by a length of inessential vein donated from elsewhere in the body, typically the saphenous vein.
Graft Versus Host Disease Incompatibility reaction between incompletely matched recipient and donor of immunologically competent tissue.
Gram Positive Bacteria which take up Gram stains during histological preparation for identification: typically bacteria present in the throat and respiratory tissues.
Gram Negative Bacteria which fail to take up Gram stains during histological preparation for identification: typically bacteria present in the bowel rather than the throat and respiratory tissues.
Gram Stain Method of colouring bacteria prior to microscopic identification - whether or not (Gram positive or Gram negative) the bacterium absorbs the stain forms a major subdivision.
Granulation Tissue Connective tissue rich in blood vessels and forming the granular surface on a healing ulcer or wound.
Granuloma, Foreign-Body Persistent swelling consisting of tightly packed white blood cells surrounding and isolating material not natural to the body.
Granuloma Persistent swelling consisting of tightly packed white blood cells.
Gravol An antihistamine medication which reduces nausea and vomiting caused by narcotics, and which enhances their painkilling effect and causes sedation.
Gross Motor Large movement.
Group A -Hemolytic Streptococcus A bacterial germ which may be a commensal on the skin and in the body orifices and can may cause infection, sometimes serious and potentially lethal.
Group B -Hemolytic Streptococcus A bacterial germ which colonises the rectum and vagina, may cause the mother no symptoms but lead to serious and potentially lethal infection of the fetus and newborn infant.
Guarding Involuntary local reflex ("protective") abdominal muscle contraction in the region of an area of peritonitis (inflamed lining membrane of the potential cavity in the abdomen).
Gynaecology The study of disease of women and girls, particularly those affecting the female reproductive organs.
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